STJ julga hoje ação da família real pela posse do Palácio da Guanabara

A 4ª Turma do STJ (Superior Tribunal de Justiça) deve julgar nesta quinta-feira (6) o processo mais antigo do Brasil: o pedido da antiga família real brasileira pela posse do Palácio da Guanabara, atual sede do governo do Rio de Janeiro, ou pagamento de indenização pelo Estado.

Na ação, que tramita há 123 anos na Justiça, a família Orleans e Bragança alega que o governo brasileiro não a indenizou após confiscar o palácio onde viveu a Princesa Isabel de Orleans e Bragança e seu marido, Conde d’Eu, que passou para as mãos da União em 1894, cinco anos após a proclamação da República.

Construído em 1853 pelo comerciante português José Machado Coelho, o imóvel serviu como residência particular até 1865, quando foi comprado pela família imperial para se tornar a morada do novo casal. Os recursos saíram dos cofres do Estado brasileiro, por obrigação da lei 166, de 29 de setembro de 1840, que determinava ao Estado o pagamento do dote imperial quando um membro da família real se casava.
“Dentre as disposições estava o fornecimento de trezentos contos de réis, pelo Estado brasileiro aos príncipes, para que com isso adquirissem prédios para residência”, escreveu o pesquisador Guilherme de Faria Nicastro, em 2017, em seu Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso de direito da FGV (Fundação Getúlio Vargas).

Com recursos próprios, o Conde d’Eu compraria anos depois áreas anexas para incorporar ao terreno. O local passou então a se chamar Paço ou Palácio Isabel.
No entanto, em novembro de 1889, após a Proclamação da República, a família real sai do país para o exílio e o local é interditado. Em dezembro daquele ano, o decreto 78-A bane formalmente a família imperial e obriga o imperador a liquidar seus bens em território brasileiro no prazo de dois anos. Um novo decreto do então governo provisório, em 1890, determina que os bens da família imperial sejam incorporados à União.

Um terceiro decreto no ano seguinte, já sob a Constituição Republicana de fevereiro de 1891, determina novamente a transferência da posse do palácio à União, mas uma decisão judicial da época em favor do representante legal da família imperial no Brasil trava a execução da ordem do presidente Deodoro Da Fonseca. Três anos depois, em 1894, o palácio é confiscado por forças militares e incorporado aos bens da União. No ano seguinte, a princesa e o conde entram na Justiça pela posse do local. Em 1955, seus herdeiros entram com ação reivindicatória. O caso é considerado prescrito pela Justiça brasileira em 1967, mas a família herdeira recorre da decisão.

Com a Constituição de 1988, os autos são remetidos ao TRF2 (Tribunal Regional Federal da 2ª Região). Em 1996, a corte de segunda instância promulga decisão favorável à União e ao Estado do Rio, que recebeu o palácio do governo federal em 1960. Os herdeiros da Princesa Isabel mais uma vez recorrem da decisão.

A família Orleans e Bragança alega que o Palácio da Guanabara estava incluído entre os bens privados da família imperial e que, portanto, deveriam ser liquidados em benefício da família e de seus herdeiros. Nos dois recursos especiais (1.149.487 e 1.141.490) que tramitam no STJ, a família pede a restituição do imóvel, o que levaria a uma indenização milionária em favor da antiga família real.

Já o Estado do Rio alega que o antigo Paço Isabel se localizava em terras da União e que serviu apenas como local de residência da família real, segundo as leis editadas pelo Império, uma finalidade que teria perdido efeito com a queda da monarquia.

Diego Junqueira, do R7

Ubiratan Braga

Jornalista, radialista, publicitário

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